Access and Diversity

(No: 91) Technology, Economic and Societal Opportunities and Women

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Status: 
Accepted
Workshop Theme: 
Access and Diversity
Theme Question: 

This workshop relates to the IGF main session theme of Access and Diversity’; empowerment of women and Internet governance.

Concise Description of Workshop: 

Technology has afforded all segments of populations around the globe with new and unique opportunities. However, some of these come with the need for changes in policies, or increased investment, to enable the full opportunities to be achieved, such as around encouraging studies in sciences or technology.

Organiser(s) Name: 

This co-sponsorship of this workshop will be consistent with the multistakeholder principle. The workshop will include representatives from business, governments, the technical community and civil society. Geographic diversity will be represented. See descriptions of anticipated speakers above.

The workshop co-organizers are business; the International Chamber of Commerce’s (ICC) BASIS (Business Action to Support the Information Society) initiative, the Government of Kenya and the Association for Progressive Communications (APC) representing civil society.

Ayesha Hassan/Constance Weise - International Chamber of Commerce
Alice Munyua - Government of Kenya
Chat Garcia Ramilo - Association for Progressive Communications

Previous Workshop(s): 

At the IGF 2011, ICC BASIS jointly organised two workshops; the ICC BASIS/Government of Kenya workshop report on “Mobile and cloud services for development” was submitted and can be found here: http://www.intgovforum.org/cms/components/com_chronocontact/uploads/WSPr... [1]

Secondly, ICC BASIS, in partnership with the Internet Society, organised a workshop on “Improving the IGF: how can we get the most out of IGF improvement processes” available at:http://www.intgovforum.org/cms/component/chronocontact/?chronoformname=WSProposals2011View&wspid=258

IGF workshop report 2010:
1) ‘Implications of Cloud Computing’: http://www.intgovforum.org/cms/component/chronocontact/?chronoformname=W...
2) ‘Open forum on ICC’s data protection and privacy work and products’: http://www.intgovforum.org/cms/component/content/article/102-transcripts...

IGF workshop report 2009: ‘Internet Governance: Economic- Recovery and Growth’: http://www.intgovforum.org/cms/index.php/component/chronocontact/?chrono...

IGF workshop report 2008: “Digital convergence beyond technology: socio-economic benefits, SMEs & public policy": http://www.intgovforum.org/cms/2008-igf-hyderabad/event-reports/72-works...

IGF workshop report 2007:
1) “Managing security issues: authentication at the transaction level”:  http://staging.iccwbo.org/advocacy-codes-and-rules/special-projects/basis/igf/
2) “Multi-stakeholder Policy Development: lessons from actors engaged in existing institutional processes”: http://www.intgovforum.org/cms/rio_reports/WS_27_Short_Report.pdf

IGF workshop report 2006: “Building human and institutional capacity for meaningful participation in Internet governance issues”: http://www.intgovforum.org/Workshop_reports.php [1] http://www.intgovforum.org/cms/components/com_chronocontact/uploads/WSPr...

Submitted Workshop Panelists: 

* Antoaneta Angelova-Krasteva, Head of Unit, Stakeholders, DG CONNECT, European 
   Commission (confirmed)
* Alice Munyua, Ministry of Information and Communications, Kenya (confirmed)
* Yara Sallam, Manager of the Women Human Rights Defenders Program, Nazra (confirmed)
* Theresa Swinehart, Executive Director, Global Internet Policy, Verizon (confirmed
* Moderator: Erika Mann, Head of Global Public Policy, Facebook (confirmed)
* Substantive rapporteur: Shawna Finnegan, Project Assistant, Internet Rights and Human 
   Rights, Association for Progressive Communications (APC) (confirmed)
* Lead discussants: Grace Githaiga, Kenya ICT Action Network (KICTANet), Kenya; P. Usha
   Rani, Director, Institutional Building, SERP of Government of Andhra Pradesh
 

Name of Remote Moderator(s): 
Raquel Gatto, Member of the IGF Remote Participation Working Group, Director at Internet Society Brazil Chapter
Gender Report Card
Please estimate the overall number of women participants present at the session: 
The majority of participants were women
To what extent did the session discuss gender equality and/or women's empowerment?: 
It was one of the main themes of the session
Please include any comments or recommendations you have on how to improve the inclusion of issues related to gender equality and: 

 

  • Hold workshops on “ICT and women”-related issues regular workshops at every IGF
  • Hold workshops on “ Rural women and ICT”, “ Capacity Building and Rural women”, “Role of community-based organizations in Internet use” at every IGF
  • Include a roundtable of women’s issues at every IGF
  • Provide an opportunity for rural women to participate and share their views in IGF

 

Report
Reported by: 
Shawna Finnegan (Association for Progressive Communications)
A brief substantive summary and the main issues that were raised: 

This was a successful workshop, engendering an interesting discussion among the panellists and the audience on a number of issues, such as:
- Internet-related economic, cultural, political and social opportunities for women, and existing gaps
- online threats faced by women human rights defenders
- how women's rights can be enhanced through the Internet (empowerment, abuse, and technology-related violence against women)
- freedom of expression

Conclusions and further comments: 

In order to enhance women's economic empowerment and their rights through access to information, the following policy and regulatory conditions stimulating access to the Internet and information emerged:

  1. Provide training and support to encourage community women's leadership on Internet access issues for addressing issues relevant to their daily life.
  2. Education and capacity building for girls and women on ICT skills as well as addressing socio-cultural norms that act as barriers are critical components of access – one which the private sector can play an important role in, in collaboration with civil society.
  3. Further and sustained multistakeholder dialogue on strategies for women's leadership and active participation on Internet-related activities and empowerment.
  4. Emphasize the economic development opportunities when discussing women's empowerment and access to the Internet with government.
  5. Work with government to develop legislation that provides specific protection for WHRDs and Internet activists threatened in online spaces.
  6. Programmes and recommended solutions to address issues of access and empowerment for women and girls must take into account multiple dimensions – economic, political as well as importantly, social and cultural issues.
  7. Building on initiatives that companies like Verizon, AT&T and others currently undertake.
Additional documents: 

(No.203) Information Ethics and Internet Governance - Identity, design, preservation and data

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Status: 
Accepted
Workshop Theme: 
Access and Diversity
Theme Question: 

Question 1: What are the policy challenges around free flow of information, freedom of expression and human rights and the Internet as they relate to access?
How can policy makers be supported in addressing current and emerging ethical challenges of information and communciation technologies? How can a better understanding of the explicit and implicit changes that result from the ongoing interplay between social processes and technology be facilitated? How can the multi-stakeholder model and approaches be harnessed to inform reflections on these development and contribute to outcomes that advance the full expression and realization of human rights?

Concise Description of Workshop: 

The notion of cyber and information ethics has emerged from the interplay of human interactions and values with the emerging technologies. The new modes of interaction bring opportunities for advancing human development but also risks for increasing inequalities. They are also giving rise to new forms of social organization which impact governance and behaviour on the Internet.

Organiser(s) Name: 

UNESCO's intergovernmental Information for All Programme (IFAP), United Nations Economic Commission for Africa ECA

Submitted Workshop Panelists: 

Session Chair - Mr. Andrejs Vasiljevs, UNESCO's Intergovernmental Information for All Programme (IFAP)
Mr Rafael Capurro, Mr Michael Eldred, International Center for Information Ethics (ICIE) - CONFIRMED; Mr Peter Lor, Department of Information Science, University of Pretoria, South Africa - CONFIRMED; Mr. Mike Hinchey, International Federation of Information Professionals (IFIP) - CONFIRMED; Ms Eskedar Nega, United Nations Economic Commission for Africa - CONFIRMED; Ms Myriam Bennani, Hajji & Associated - CONFIRMED.

Name of Remote Moderator(s): 
Mr. Cédric Waccholz / Mr. Paul G. C. Hector
Gender Report Card
Please estimate the overall number of women participants present at the session: 
About half of the participants were women
To what extent did the session discuss gender equality and/or women's empowerment?: 
It was mentioned briefly in the presentations and discussions
Report
Reported by: 
Paul G C Hector
A brief substantive summary and the main issues that were raised: 

The session, entitled “Information Ethics & Internet Governance - Identity, design, data and preservation”, was part of UNESCO’s ongoing efforts aimed at raising awareness of and reflecting on the legal, societal and ethical dimensions of the use and application of information and communication technologies (ICT).
In his opening remarks, Mr Andrejs Vasiljevs, session moderator and Chair of the IFAP Information Ethics Working Group, characterized the current situation as “a race between three competitors – ICT and their applications in the lead; national and international ICT regulations and policies a distant second; with societies’ understanding of the social and ethical implications and impacts of the technologies and their uses lagging far behind”. He therefore underlined the need to enhance understanding in order to improve policy responses, reduce the current gaps and improve societal outcomes.
Panelists drew on global and regional experiences that brought together the perspectives of actors involved in intergovernmental policy-making, both in academia as well as the private sector.
Director of the Irish Software Research Engineering Centre (Lero), Mr Mike Hinchey spoke about his organization’s work aimed at embedding rules that promote human rights into technical architectures. He explained how this approach could address the needs of persons with disabilities and protect security and privacy online.
Another panelist, Ms Eskedar Nega of UNECA, shed light on the regional cyber-security convention being developed by UNECA at the request of Member States of the African Union to create an enabling legal and institutional environment for e-commerce, cyber-security, cyber-criminality and the protection of personal data and privacy. According to Ms Nega, “these efforts are bearing fruit with an increasing number of countries currently engaged in formulating and enacting the required cyber-legislations for a safe and trustworthy cyberspace in Africa".
The challenges around preserving digital content were addressed by Professor Peter Lor of the University of Pretoria.
“Digital content is growing at a rapid pace but is also very fragile… so its cultural, historical, legal and other important roles make its preservation urgent,” said Professor Lor. “Nevertheless, this raises ethical questions around how content is collected and consent, how are permitted uses of content, privacy of records, as well as their authenticity and completeness.”
UNESCO’s Assistant Director-General for Communication and Information, Mr Jānis Kārkliņš, was the final panelist and presented UNESCO’s strategy toward ethical dimensions of the information society, as approved in October by the Organization’s Executive Board. The strategy will further orient and enhance the activities being undertaken through IFAP and UNESCO’s regular programme. “Given the complexity of these issues, varying levels of understanding and needs, we will be exploring all possibilities, and engaging with research institutions and our global network of partners to develop methodologies and best practices in this field,” Mr Kārkliņš said.

Conclusions and further comments: 

An interactive session with both the live audience and virtual participants followed the panelists’ presentations. The discussion served to provide additional perspectives, as well as to reinforce awareness of the urgent need for understanding of information ethics among all citizens.
Some of the issues discussed included:
* The need for mechanisms that could address cross-border resolution of privacy disputes
* Including information ethics awareness as a mandatory component of the academic preparation of all students and continue professional development of ICT professionals and policy-makers
* Exploring how  different traditions of ethics, could be integrated into the current information ethics debate as currently much of research and policy discussion were taking place in North America and Europe. Initiatives such as the African Network for Information Ethics (ANIE) were providing entry-points for non-western perspectives and research. Intercultural dialogue and exchange  also has a vital role to play in advancing understanding and inclusion in the debate.
Attention was also given to exploring how further collaboration between stakeholders could be advanced bearing in mind the documents "UNESCO and the ethical dimensions of the Information society" (http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0021/002173/217316e.pdf) adopted at the 190th session of UNESCO's Executive Board  and an ongoing UNESCO-commissioned research study on current and emerging information ethics that will be presented at the upcoming WSIS+10 Review Meeting (http://www.unesco.org/wsis2013) in February 2013.

(No.191) The influence of politics over internet users' access and diversity

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Status: 
Accepted
Workshop Theme: 
Access and Diversity
Concise Description of Workshop: 

Today we are facing several issues on the access of people to several antent and services over the Internet, causing from the direct affects (and side-effects) of political actions and decisions made by politicians.
While politics is mainly a tool for governments to argue against each other, people are harming these arguments as a result of being victims of the decisions made by the government bodies, because of their authority and control on communication resources and internet as well.

Organiser(s) Name: 

Dr. Shahram Soboutipour, Independent IT Consultant, Iran, Civil Society

Previous Workshop(s): 

No

Submitted Workshop Panelists: 

1. Mr. Pedro Less Andrade, Private Sector, Director Government Affairs & Public Policy – Latin America, Google Inc., US (Confirmed)
Pedro is a Lawyer from University of Buenos Aires, holds a Master's degree (LL.M) from University of Georgia with a thesis on international regulation of electronic commerce; and pursued postgraduate studies in the Legal Framework of the Multilateral Trading System of the WTO.

In 2007 he joined Google to lead the public policy and government affairs work for Latin America and has been actively involved since then in with the IGF. He is also Vice President of Public Policy of the Latin American & Caribbean Federation for Internet & E-commerce (eCom-Lac); Board Member and head of the regulatory commission of Argentina’s Internet Industry Chamber (CABASE); and member of legislative commission of the Argentinean E-commerce Chamber (CACE).

Pedro is also a law professor of the University of Buenos Aires specialized in Internet and e-commerce law, invited professor at several Latin American universities and faculty of the South School on Internet Governance.
2. Ms. Olga Cavalli , Advisor Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Argentina, Argentina, Government (Confirmed)
Olga Cavalli is an ICT and Internet specialist with large experience in project management, market research, competitive analysis, public policy and regulations. 
Since 2007 Ms. Cavalli is a member of the United Nations Secretary General´s Advisory group for the Internet Governance Forum and the Argentina Representative in the GAC (Governmental Adivisor Committee) of ICANN. She was GNSO Council Member in ICANN and GNSO Vice chair.
As an advisor of the Ministry of Foreing Affairs of Argentina, she has represented Argentina in the WSIS Second Phase held in Tunis. 
She was the argentine focal point for the eLAC 2015 Latinamerican Regional Information Society Plan of Action, and coordinator of the Internet Governance Group in eLAC 2010 and was former coordinator of the Financing eLAC 2007 working group. 
Ms. Cavalli was a member of the Special Commission appointed by the Government of Argentina to develop the basis for the Cybercrime Law in Argentina and she was also a leading member of the commission that developed the National Digital Agenda of Argentina.
Since 2007 she is the Director and main leader of the South School on Internet Governance, pioneering program that grants fellowships to students in Latin America and the Caribbean to recieve an intensive face to face training in Internet Governance. (www.gobernanzadeinternet.com.ar)
Ms. Cavalli is the President of the Commission "Women Engineeers for Development" in the Argentine Center of Engineers. She is the secretary of the ISOC Argentina Chapter.
Ms Cavalli is a Teacher at Universidad de Buenos Aires and at the Diplomacy career in the Ministry of Foreing Affairs.
Ms. Cavalli is a PHD in Business Direction, MBA, Master in Telecommunication Regulation and Electronic and Electric Engineer. She is fluent in Spanish, English, Portuguese and German. She lives in Buenos Aires and is the mother of Juana and Federico.
 
3. Ms. Fayez Mariam , AFS Egypt, Civil society (Confirmed)
Fayez has been an active volunteer in AFS Egypt, a nonprofit organization that promotes international/ intercultural exchanges, and currently serves on its Board of Directors.
She has teaching and training experience in the fields of crisis management and social media in multicultural contexts, intercultural learning and online communications. Her interests include volunteerism and exploring emerging issues related to the development the Internet and its impact on members of the younger generation.
Fayez holds an LLM in intellectual property rights from the University of Turin, Italy and the WIPO Worldwide Academy; and a BA in journalism and mass communications from the American University in Cairo.
Fayez has a 12 year experience in media relations for government in Egypt's Ministry of Communications and Information Technology.
4. Ms. Hong Xue, Civil Society , Asia Pacific (confirmed)
Dr. Hong Xue is a Professor of Law and the Director of the Institute of the Internet Policy & Law at Beijing Normal University (BNU). Prof. Xue specializes in intellectual property law, information technology law and the Internet governance.
Prof. Xue is an elected Top Ten Nationally Distinguished Young Jurists by the China Law Society. Prof. Xue is a Fellow of Yale Information Society Project and the Chinese Leader for Global Academy on Access to Knowledge. She had taught in Yale Law School, Law Faculty of University of Hong Kong and Murdoch University of Australia. She is the Faculty Chair of Asia Pacific Internet Leadership Project (APILP). She is an invited professor to teach at Torino Law School-WIPO Master of Laws in Intellectual Property and works with the World Intellectual Property Academy to provide training for Intellectual Property officers from developing countries.
She works in many governmental and non-governmental organizations. She is on the Editorial Board of World Intellectual Property Journal, the Expert Advisory Board of Diplo Foundation and the Advisory Panel of the Indian Journal of Intellectual Property Law. She is appointed in the United Nations Network of Experts for Paperless Trade in Asia and the Pacific (UNNExT). She is an Arbitrator at China International Economic and Trade Arbitration Commission (CIETAC), Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP) Neutral appointed by World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and Asia Domain Name Dispute Resolution Centre (ADNDRC).
She was the Chair of ICANN Asia Pacific Regional At-Large Organization (APRALO), a founding member and then the founding Internationalized Domain Names (IDNs) Liaison of At-Large Advisory Committee (ALAC) and had served on the Board
Director Candidate Evaluation Committee. She had served on the ICANN Nomination Committee and President’s Advisory Committee on IDNs. She is a member of ccNSO Council, ICANN Fellowship Committee, the Chair of Council of Chinese Domain Name Users Alliance (CDNUA) and founding Member of Chinese Domain Names Consortium (CDNC).
She authored many books, papers and other publications. Her latest book is “International Intellectual Property Law @ Crossroad”, published in March 2012. Her blog is at www.iipl.org.cn
5. Mr. Juan Fernández, Government , Cuba (Confirmed) (Remote Panelist)

Juan Fernández is a Senior Advisor in the Ministry of Informatics and Communications of Cuba and an Assistant Professor in the University of Informatics Sciences (UCI). Previously he was Advisor for the National Directorate of Informatics of Cuba, Coordinator of the Cuban Commission for Electronic Commerce and Director of informatization of the Ministry of the Steel, Mechanic and Electronic Industry (SIME).

Before that he was CIO of the Corporation of Information Technologies and Automation (CITA), Technical Director and Project Manager in the Robotic and Software Center (EICISOFT), and a Senior Researcher and Professor in the Microelectronics Research Center of the Havana Polytechnic Institute (ISPJAE). He was a member of the Strategy Council of the United Nations Global Alliance for ICT and Development and a founding member of the United Nations ICT Task Force and of the Working Group on Internet Governance (WGIG). He participated actively in the negotiating process for the outcome documents of both phases of the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS).

He has given lectures and published articles in Cuba and abroad in various topics that includes the Management of Big Software Projects, Electronic Commerce and the economic sustainability of internet.

His current interests are the strategies and models of the use of ICTs for development, the organization of the software industry in developing countries and the economic sustainability of internet.

He has a Physics Degree from Havana University and the degree of Senior Researcher of the National Academy of Sciences of Cuba. He has received various technical and scientific awards, and has a Patent in Image Processing. He is also a FIDE International Chess Master.

Name of Remote Moderator(s): 
Mr. Alireza Saleh
Gender Report Card
Please estimate the overall number of women participants present at the session: 
About half of the participants were women
To what extent did the session discuss gender equality and/or women's empowerment?: 
It was not seen as related to the session theme and was not raised
Report
Reported by: 
Shahram Soboutipour
A brief substantive summary and the main issues that were raised: 

The workshop started with about 20 minutes of delay and lasted about 1:30 hours. The reason was that it was schedules to be the first set of workshop taking place in IGF2012, after the lunch (with a long queue).
The combination of our panelists was good including Private Sector (Mr. Pedro Less Andrade, Director Government Affairs & Public Policy – Latin America, Google Inc.,), Governmental Sector (Ms. Olga Cavalli, Advisor Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Argentina), Civil Society (Ms. Mariam Fayez, AFS Egypt) and Legal Experts/Academia (Ms. Hong Xue, Director of Institute for the Internet Policy and Law at Beijing Normal University)
The workshop started with some samples of the influences of political actions and decisions which could bring limitations in user’s access to internet, including:

  1. Local regulations and policies which forced giant internet companies to limit data and service providing to specific areas.
  2. Controversy between similar cases which in some countries force internet companies to restrict user’s access to specific data/services but the same situation does not bring the same result in other cases. (specially this cased was raised that “why Google did not shut down the YouTube video which made many Muslims angry, but at the same time had easily limited access to a specific data in response to a local court decision for a lower sensitive case)
  3. Some of the attendees asked their questions about similar cases of limitation of access forced to internet users even through governments or through the major internet companies, some of them responded by the relevant panelists.
Conclusions and further comments: 

Continuing the workshop, the panelist shared their ideas about the reasons of these influences, including:

  1. Sometimes political decisions are made based on wrong data or lack of enough data, since the politicians and decision makers are not necessarily experts in the field.
  2. Another reason which was raised is the opposite effect of lack of access to internet on political decisions. Meaning in places with better access to internet, there are better exchange of knowledge providing better infrastructural data and share of knowledge between stakeholders for decision makers to use.
  3. Another interesting point which was raised during the workshop was the controversy and conflict between the international laws vs. local laws in terms of internet usage which creates a confusing area for the decision makers. There is still no solution for this problem and it is one of the most important discussions between internet stakeholders in IGF and other related areas.

As a conclusion all the panelists agreed on the importance of this topic to be continued to discuss in the future. A major outcome of this workshop was the approval of a need to raise the awareness of all internet stakeholders (both decision makers and those affected by the decisions) about the cross affect of their acts on each other.
A stress on need for finding the appropriate solution on demarcation of local laws vs. international laws for a worldwide resource like internet was also clearly mentioned by the panelists.

(No.168) Capacity building Initiatives for better economic and social inclusion of vulnerable people in the Information society

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Status: 
Accepted
Workshop Theme: 
Access and Diversity
Theme Question: 

Question 6

Concise Description of Workshop: 

We would like to initiate the discussion on the need for Capacity building programs and initiatives in the field of involvement of vulnerable people in Internet governance processes for their better social and economic inclusion in the Information society that will facilitate participation in sustainable human development. The present workshop proposal is the continuation of the Vilnius (WS 109) and Nairobi (WS 126) discussions on the use of ICTs by vulnerable people.

Organiser(s) Name: 

Ms Yuliya Morenets-TaC-Together against Cybercrime-Civil Society

Submitted Workshop Panelists: 

Mr Zahid U. Jamil- Co-moderator, Barrister Esq.

, Director, Developing Country Center for Cybercrime & Law - Jamil & Jamil Barristers-at-law (confirmed)
Ms Yuliya Morenets- Co-moderator, TaC-Together against Cybercrime (confirmed)
Mr Wolf Ludwig- Euralo/ICANN (confirmed)  
Mr Khaled Fattal- Multilingual Internet Group (confirmed)
Ms Danielle de Groot Msc- Council of Chiefs of Police, Netherlands (confirmed) 
Ms Lara Pace-COMNET (confirmed)
Ms Barbara-Chiara Ubaldi- OECD (confirmed) 
Mr Stuart Hamilton- IFLA-International federation of Library Associations and Institutions (confirmed)

Name of Remote Moderator(s): 
Ms Roxana Radu- Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies (Geneva), (confirmed)
Gender Report Card
Please estimate the overall number of women participants present at the session: 
About half of the participants were women
To what extent did the session discuss gender equality and/or women's empowerment?: 
It was mentioned briefly in the presentations and discussions
Report
Reported by: 
Ms Yuliya MORENETS
A brief substantive summary and the main issues that were raised: 

A successful and interactive discussion, covering a big number of issues, took place during this workshop. Panelists, together with the audience, tried to understand how to better involve vulnerable people in the Information society to give them the possibility to become active actors in the field of Internet Governance.
The focus of the workshop was on the effect and capacity building needs for better social inclusion of vulnerable people and on how to better assist them in the Information society.
During the workshop a big number of points were raised and the discussion mainly focused on the following aspects:
- The need to continue the discussion on the definition of vulnerable in the context of technical progress and different existing national specificities.
There is a necessity to empowering them with knowledge to promote their representation in the Information society. This can be achieved only by creating possibilities for such people to actively participate in social and economic life and to communicate in the language they are accustomed to. 
Everyday progress in the field of ICTs, the development of e-government solutions and open data initiatives create a need to add channels for delivery of services and to engage citizens more broadly and actively in policy making processes. The access issue, which is not new, still remains crucial and is closely related to the education and the income of citizens, predominant factors that can create access barriers. In this field libraries play an important role for better social and economic inclusion of the most vulnerable and those who face access problems. It is important to mention that economic inclusion and access to services go beyond the question of Internet access. Meanwhile, it was underlined that majority of the citizens in the emerging markets without the access to the computer can't be defined as vulnerable people because they haven't had access. Participants mentioned the increasing role of mobile devices to access Internet and services, which is growing exponentially, especially in the developing countries.
- The necessity to build capacity for vulnerable people and national governments on inclusion of vulnerable groups in the Information society.
It is very important to be able to reach the defined target group, in this regard dissemination and communication are essential to raise the awareness of the target actors on the existing solutions and involve them in the process of development of capacity building initiatives. The value that these opportunities provide to vulnerable groups should be clarified before the development of programs.
To be effective, capacity building programs should be based on the assessment of existing needs in particular communities, as different communities have different goals, different interests, and as there is no one fits all solution. After clear understanding of the existing situation in a particular target group is achieved and other existing solutions and initiatives are taken into account, capacity building programs for the respective target group can be offered by using existing infrastructures.
- The role of global and national Strategies on the inclusion of vulnerable people in the Information society, with particular attention paid to women and children.
It should include measures and propose solutions for safe and responsible use of the Internet and ICTs by vulnerable people, who are more fragile with regard to Internet dangers and risks. During the discussion it was suggested to promote the notion of A right of secure cyberspace for all. Regional and National IGFs, as well as other Initiatives could help the development of such Strategies and facilitate their further implementation in a multistakeholder format.

Conclusions and further comments: 

During the workshop a consensus was found on:
1. The need to continue the discussion on the inclusion of vulnerable people in the Information society and on the possibilities for them to become active actors in the field of Internet Governance.
2. The need to identify existing initiatives and best practices in the filed of active engagement or programs for better active engagement of vulnerable people in the Information society.
3. The need to build capacity of vulnerable groups and other stakeholders, such as national government representatives, based on the assessment of existing situation and by taking into account regional/national particularities, existing infrastructures and precise definition of the target audience.
4. The need to raise the issue of development of Global Strategy on the inclusion of vulnerable groups in the Information society, after the identification of its objectives and its potential value for the target group.
As a result of the present workshop, it was proposed to create a Working Group on the issue of better inclusion of vulnerable groups in the Information society. More detailed information can be found at: www.vulnerables.eu

(No.165) BLOCKING, FILTERING, NATIONAL LEGAL FRAMEWORKS AND ACCESS? MYTHS AND REALITIES

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Status: 
Rejected
Workshop Theme: 
Access and Diversity
Theme Question: 

question 4

Concise Description of Workshop: 

Today increasingly, the world is constantly changing. The Internet , which was hitherto not the concern of national governments, has suddenly started assuming centre stage attention. Governments of the world are increasingly concerned on what content is being transmitted using the Internet and connected computers, computer systems, computer networks, computer resources and communication devices. That is the reason, why filtering and blocking as phenomena are increasingly being resorted to, by nation states so as to prevent access.

Backgroung Paper: 
Organiser(s) Name: 

Cyberlaw Asia

Previous Workshop(s): 

Yes, the President of Cyberlaw Asia, Mr. Pavan Duggal has organized various workshops and addresses various workshops including IGF held at Athens, Rio De Janerio, Hyderabad and Sharm-El-Sheikh.

Submitted Workshop Panelists: 

Vincent Cerf, Google Prof Hong Xiu, Beijing University, China Pindar Wong, Hong Kong Edmun Chang, Dot Asia Pavan Duggal, President, Cyberlaw Asia

Name of Remote Moderator(s): 
urvashi

(No.133) Local Content Production and Dissemination as a Driver of Access

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Status: 
Accepted
Workshop Theme: 
Access and Diversity
Theme Question: 

How is the creation of local content that expands and deepens the pool of knowledge all of us share on the www/internet a driver of access?

Concise Description of Workshop: 

Access to the global internet has evolved quickly. With the arrival of broadband to developing Countries; undersea fiber cable landing on the shore, fiber links connecting the cities, fiber loops circling the suburbs, and broadband wireless enveloping the rural areas, the issues of access and adoption begin to be discussed in earnest and the focus turns to potential drivers of access.

Organiser(s) Name: 

Garland McCoy, Technology Education Institute, NGO (US) (confirmed)
Vladimir Radunovic, DiploFoundation, (Serbia) NGO (Moderator) (confirmed)
Virginia Paque-DiploFoundation (Venezuela) (Remote Moderator) (confirmed)
Kristin Peterson, inveneo, NGO, (US) (Rapporteur) (confirmed)
 

Submitted Workshop Panelists: 

Ambassador Philip Verveer, US State Department (Government) (Confirmed)
Mark Carvell, UK Government, Culture, Commons and Creative Industires (Government) (Confirmed)
Thomas Spiller, The Disney Company, (Confirmed)
Subi Chaturvedi, Asst. Professor Journalism filmmaker photographer curator (Confirmed)
Dr. Imad Hoballah, Academic, (Lebanon) (Confirmed)
Bevil Wooding, NGO, (Trinidad) (Confirmed)
Dejan Cvetkovic, Microsoft, (Central and East Europe) (Confirmed)
Kristin Peterson, inveneo, NGO, (Confirmed)
 
Virginia Paque-DiploFoundation (Venezuela) (Remote Moderator) (Confirmed)
Vladimir Radunovic, DiploFoundation (Serbia) (Moderator) (Confirmed)
 Kristin Peterson, inveneo (US) (Rapporteur) (Confirmed)
 

Name of Remote Moderator(s): 
Virginia Paque-DiploFoundation (Venezuela) (Remote Moderator) (confirmed)
Gender Report Card
Please estimate the overall number of women participants present at the session: 
About half of the participants were women
To what extent did the session discuss gender equality and/or women's empowerment?: 
It was mentioned briefly in the presentations and discussions
Please include any comments or recommendations you have on how to improve the inclusion of issues related to gender equality and: 

Our workshop had two women panel speakers;  Subi Chaturvedi, an Associate Professor of Journalism, Filmmaker, Photographer at an all women College in India spoke of the empowering nature new technologies have made in the creation of local content for women and how the internet is enabling the content to be distributed widely, the second women speaker was Kristin Peterson, CEO and Founder of inveneo, a non-profit dedicated to "connecting those who need it most" she discussed the work her organization is doing in Uganda to connect, educate and orgainize farmers many of whom are women.   

Report
Reported by: 
Garland McCoy, Technology Eduation Institute
A brief substantive summary and the main issues that were raised: 

Workshop #133
“Local Content Production and Dissemination as a Driver of Access”
November 9, 2012
 
Vlada Radunovic from DiploFoundation was the moderator and introduced the topic by pointing out the huge amount of content that is uploaded onto the internet (YouTube for example) every hour of every day and how more and more people are becoming reporters and creating content, empowered by new digital technologies like smart phones that are connected to the internet. He told the audience that what we hoped to do in this workshop was to highlight some real examples of the production of local content and how this content is impacting all of us in a positive way.
 
Vlada introduced U.S. Ambassador Phil Vereer who spoke to the fact that we are looking at the world differently now, from the standpoint of access. How do people use the internet, interact with it? He addressed the need to have content available in appropriate languages and to continue to work to get communities involved in interacting with the internet where it is available but where there are low take up rates. The need to reduce costs, increase availability and languages and continue to work to get all communities engaged in the internet ecosystem.
 
Before Vlada went to the next panel speaker he engaged the audience by asking them how they used the internet; for entertainment, for education, for research, for expression and communication, for access to information. This line of questioning brought Vlada to the first panel speaker, Subi Chaturvedi who as an Assistant Professor Journalism, Filmmaker, Photographer and Curator at a College for Women in India was able to give excellent examples of both the need to have the internet be adaptive to new languages; there are 173 languages in India, over 18 of which are recognized, and over 563 dialects, as well as addressing how new digital technologies are empowering her female students to create content and to take there disciplines back to their communities to empower other. She discussed (thesaltlist.org) platform she put together for use by her young students and others to articulate issues and for community video volunteers to use for posting their material all with an eye towards the inclusion of young people and women in communities to give them a voice. So (thesaltlist.org) looks at issues locals care about.  She also touched on the use of content to address the literacy problem in India with the help of Bollywood and popular culture. Finally, Subi mentioned the need for facilitators and enablers to help drive local content which she, in her position as a professor, is hoping to help provide as her students graduate and move back to their communities.
 
Having touched on the great diversity of India’s culture and languages Vlada turned to Dejan Cvetkovic from Microsoft who discussed the importance cloud computing is playing in the development of technologies that allow for public data, even old public data, to be put into the cloud for all citizens to have access to and use. This program is proving very successful in making available to citizens valuable government content which they can embellish anyway they choose creating huge amounts of locally produced content. Dejan cited examples like vanguide.com which enables citizens to access information about what is going on in the city of Vancouver. This was accomplished by taking the public data from servers across the city and putting the information in the cloud and then encouraging application developers to develop the apps to use the content over multiple devices. This concept is being repeated in cities all across the globe. Another example Dejan mentioned was one based in Europe that allowed citizens of EU countries to access information from the cloud on things like the quality of the water in their community, air quality and similar important information. Dejan cited figures on the huge financial benefits to getting this public data out and available in the cloud for citizens to access and he ended with the benefits to be found in storing content in the cloud for easy access and that issues like privacy and security are not in play when discussing public data.  
 
Mark Carvell, UK Minister, was next to speak and he brought a governmental perspective on this issue and he too discussed the importance of making public data available and easier to access through the cloud and of course the UK has significant archived data and Subi spoke to how great the UK portal is and how important the public libraries are in all of this access to data in the cloud.
 
 Jimson Olufuye, who was in the audience, was recognized and spoke as an IT official in Nigeria and how the government there has made a significant investment in getting all the government data, public data, and putting it in a digital format and on the cloud for its citizens. Jimson also reminded the audience that Nigeria is the home of Nollywood which rivals Bollywood in India in the creation of digital content, movies and alike. 
We had several remote questions come in during the workshop; from Albania, Argentina, and Cameroon. The questions ranged from focusing on open vs. proprietary software platforms to work with the public data available in the cloud (format of data issue) to the issue of the significant cost and availability of broadband to the importance of getting the word out about the availability of all this public data and making it available in the cloud for easy access in their home country.
 
Kristin Peterson with the non-profit group inveneo spoke of her work in Uganda with farmers developing local content to help retrain farming skills lost during years of war along the border as well as exchanging ideas and crop information from remote communities to other remote communities. She also spoke of the other groups that create microwork opportunities over the internet and how this connectivity that her group is making possible, and local content creation,  is helping to address the language and literacy issues as well.
 
From Africa we went to the Caribbean where Bevil Wooding, Packet Clearing House, talked about IXPs and the need for local content to drive the IXPs. He spoke of his work with young people, particularly girls,  in using technology and digital tools to develop local content under a program called ICTO (information and communication technology outreach). He said the goal is to show how content development is linked to some of the challenges of access and some of the challenges to policy. He mentioned his open data initiative and having a multi-stakeholder approach to producing material. He also mentioned the importance of working with government officials, like the Ministers of Education in reaching out to students and empowering them with the digital tools to create content, more culturally relevant content, and making it available online. He mentioned that some of the initiative he has launched are being replicated in cities in the UK and in a small town in the US.
 
Vlada next moved to Thomas Spiller from the Disney Company who spoke on the creative aspect of content production. He talked about the need for more quality local content and the need for more creativity in the production stage.  He noted that the first component should be creativity, about telling a good story with your content.  Thomas spoke of Disney’s global commitment to local content production with an ear for local languages and an eye for local customs.  He stressed his association with production in Nollywood and Bollywood and with the studios in countries yet to reach the radar screen.  He ended with comments on the need for legal certainty and rule of law to ensure that locally produced content has a chance to develop financially viable markets if that is the intent. There was follow discussion regarding the need for government investment in infrastructure and connectivity. Mark Carvell also added to comments made by Bevil about IXPs pointing out that the UK has been a big backer at the ITU for countries to embrace IXPs in that they brings down connectivity costs and stimulates local content production.
 
The workshop ended with comments from our final panelist, Imad  Hoballah, Government Regulator from Lebanon who spoke very candidly about the need for a LIGHT regulatory touch when it comes to the internet and content and he cited many examples of local content driving access in the Arab world. He spoke of the huge jump in participation on Facebook and Twitter among citizens in the Middle East particularly when the Arabic Facebook was launched.  He spoke of the challenges facing digital content creation and documentation and dissemination due to limited national and regional initiative to support these efforts. Arab governments he said could be described as shy and inhibited at best. They see it as trying to give away on the internet what they will not give away off the internet in free speech and free expression. The Arab Spring has created a backlash with some governments in the Arab world and these governments are restricting and monitoring citizens on these digital platforms. IT literacy is very much an issue in the Middle East as is illiteracy in general. There is also a significant lack of access penetration in many countries in the region. He spoke of the need for everyone to work together during this historic transition.
 
 
 

Conclusions and further comments: 

The creation and distribution of locally produced content empowers the producer and enriches us all. The richness of languages and cultures is there for all of us to enjoy and share. The creative process is meaningful for the creator and in some instances brings economic benefits. Governments share a role in this process and when they make available public data in an easy to use format, like the cloud, everyone benefits. It is important to keep in mind that content needs legal certainty and rule of law to ensure it has a chance of creating an income stream for the creator and the creator's country.

(No.130) Digital Inclusion and Public Access to the Internet: What Policymakers Need and how Libraries and Other Community Services can Deliver

Go to Report
Status: 
Accepted
Workshop Theme: 
Access and Diversity
Theme Question: 

q1, 2

Concise Description of Workshop: 

Building on discussions at the 2011 IGF and 2012 EuroDIG, this workshop will take the form of a dialogue between policymakers, technology companies, funding bodies and representatives from the regional and international library communities, and others on the subject of digital inclusion policies and practices.

Backgroung Paper: 
Organiser(s) Name: 

Monika Elbert, Senior Policy Advisor, EIFL. Electronic Information for Libraries (EIFL - www. eifl.net) works in collaboration with libraries in more than 60 developing and transition countries. EIFL enables access to knowledge for education, learning, research and sustainable community development. EIFL is an international not-for-profit organisation based in Europe with a global network of partners from governments, civil society, foundations and the business sector. monika.elbert@eifl.net Stuart Hamilton, Director of Policy and Advocacy, IFLA. The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA - www.ifla.org) is the leading international body representing the interests of library and information services and their users in over 150 countries worldwide. It is the global voice of the library and information profession. stuart.hamilton@ifla.org Christine Runnegar, Senior Policy Advisor, ISOC. The Internet Society (ISOC – www.isoc.org) is the trusted independent source for Internet information and thought leadership from around the world. With its principled vision and substantial technological foundation, the Internet Society promotes open dialogue on Internet policy, technology and future development among users, companies, governments, and other organizations. Working with its members and Chapters around the world, the Internet Society enables the continued evolution and growth of the Internet for everyone. runnegar@isoc.org

Previous Workshop(s): 

IGF 2011 'Do policy makers understand the role of libraries in mobilising the Internet as a catalyst of for development, innovation and freedom' http://www.intgovforum.org/cms/component/chronocontact/?chronoformname=W... IGF 2010 'Why we need an Open Web: Open Knowledge Governance for Innovation'. http://www.intgovforum.org/cms/component/chronocontact/?chronoformname=W... A report was submitted and uploaded but there does not seem to be a link anymore.

Submitted Workshop Panelists: 

Stuart Hamilton, Director of Policy and Advocacy, IFLA (CONFIRMED)
Siri Oswald, Programme Officer, Global Libraries, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (CONFIRMED)
Olivier Crepin-Leblond, ISOC England Chapter (CONFIRMED)
Dejan Cvetkovic, Microsoft (CONFIRMED)
Paul Andre-Baran, Honorary Advisor to the Ministry of Communications, Romania (CONFIRMED)
Jamilya Talibzadeh, Deputy Director of the Presidential Library of the Azerbaijan Republic (CONFIRMED)
Ari Katz, Director, Beyond Access (CONFIRMED)
Sangay Khandu, Member of Parliament, Bhutan (CONFIRMED)
Kafui A. Prebbie, CEO Tech Aid, Ghana (CONFIRMED)
 

Name of Remote Moderator(s): 
Irina Trushina, IFLA
Report
Reported by: 
Stuart Hamilton, International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA)
A brief substantive summary and the main issues that were raised: 

The workshop discussed the notion of libraries as agents for development, with the aim of raising awareness within the IGF that libraries are an ideal partner to solve the problem of digital inclusion. It also explored the role that other public access points play. The starting point for discussion was the realisation that while over two billion people are now online not all of them have their own Internet connection. A significant amount of all the world’s Internet users, particularly those in remote areas, rely on public access points, such as libraries, to participate in the information society.
Politicians, policymakers, funders, technical experts, entrepreneurs and members of the library community all participated in the workshop. A moderated discussion brought out a wide array of experiences and views on the role of libraries and other community services in providing public access to the Internet. Panellists explained how governments all over the world are exploring public access solutions to meet community needs, with examples from numerous countries including Bhutan, Romania, Ghana and Poland.
The main issues raised included:

  • Sensitizing policymakers to the role of libraries in the development agenda /process;
  • Collaboration with all stakeholders to ensure that libraries play a major and effective role in attaining development goals;
  • The importance of local content and services relevant to end users, and how public access intermediaries can provide these;
  • The ongoing value of traditional library competencies in the digital age, such as provision of expertise and advice; community building; physical space; development of skills or the ability to print documents; and reliable funding sources
  • Question marks surrounding the sustainability of other community services providing public access without a reliable funding and access to local content
  • The use of new technologies such as cloud computing by libraries to potentially provide further access to valuable information resources at low cost;
  • Building the capacity of both librarians and users in terms of information literacy and technological skills;
  • Raising the profile of public libraries so that there is a change in attitudes and perceptions among policymakers, funders and the development community.
Conclusions and further comments: 

Through discussion, it emerged that policymakers want solutions which take advantage of existing infrastructure and expertise and also have the flexibility to partner with the private sector and innovate. With 230,000 public libraries worldwide, the majority of which are in developing countries, the workshop concluded that libraries are potentially an excellent fit for governments or other agencies looking for development partners. They know their community; they understand their needs and they are able to tie their services not only to these needs but also to national policies and community policies for development and for access to information.
 
In conclusion, the workshop achieved two objectives. Firstly, it discussed in depth the importance of public access to the Internet as a key tool in solving the problem of digital inclusion. Second, it questioned the perception that libraries are outdated and instead explored the idea that these long-standing community institutions might be the perfect partners for stakeholders working in the development field. In addition to offering physical spaces with trained staff that are connected to existing government strategies and budget lines, innovative libraries around the world are offering online access to education, health and employment resources, as well as e-government services. Libraries are untapped resources and are still relevant in providing key services for development, promoting civic engagement and bridging the digital divide.
 

(No.129) The Sustainable Benefits of Inclusion on the Internet

Go to Report
Status: 
Accepted
Workshop Theme: 
Access and Diversity
Concise Description of Workshop: 

The first ever World report on disability, produced jointly by the World Health Organization and the World Bank, suggests that more than a billion people in the world today experience disability.
Article 9 of The United Nations convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, which has been ratified by over 100 countries, declares that what it calls States Parties "shall also take appropriate measures to: ... Promote access for persons with disabilities to new information and communications technologies and systems, including the Internet".

Organiser(s) Name: 

Dynamic Coalition on Accessibility and Disability (DCAD)

Previous Workshop(s): 
Submitted Workshop Panelists: 

Speakers:

Gerry Ellis, Feel The BenefIT, Ireland
"Universal Design - Sustainable Business and Societal Benefits"
 
Arun Mehta, Bidirectional Access Promotion Society, India
"Those who fall between the cracks: the case of the deaf-blind"
 
Peter Major, DCAD Co-coordinator, Switzerland
"Activities of ITU and the United Nations Commission on Science and Technology for Development (CSTD) on Accessibility for persons with disabilities: an overview"
 
Jorge Plano, ISOC, Argentina
“The growth of the e-book market: Promises and dangers for accessibility”
 
Shadi Abou-Zahra, W3C Web Accessibility Initiative, Austria
“Web Accessibility Now”
 
Session Moderator: Peter Major, DCAD Co-coordinator
 

Name of Remote Moderator(s): 
Ginger Paque, Diplo Foundation
Gender Report Card
Please estimate the overall number of women participants present at the session: 
There were very few women participants
To what extent did the session discuss gender equality and/or women's empowerment?: 
It was raised by one or more of the speakers as an important aspect of the session's theme
Report
Reported by: 
DCAD
A brief substantive summary and the main issues that were raised: 

The title of the workshop “The Sustainable Benefits of Inclusion on the Internet” intended to steer the discussion on the reality of what member states (and states parties that are signatories of the United nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities – (UNCRDP)) have to do in relation to “take appropriate measures to […] Promote access for persons with disabilities to new information and communications technologies and systems, including the Internet".
The workshop highlighted methods of achieving inclusion on the Internet and demonstrated some of the long-term, sustainable benefits that accrue to all of society.

Conclusions and further comments: 

Mr Peter Major, DCAD Co-coordinator opened the workshop offering an overview of the ITU activities for accessibility in all the sectors of the International Telecommunication Union *ITU. He continued presenting the activities of the United Nations Commission on Science and Technology for Development (UNCSTD). The DCAD Co-coordinator also took the occasion to present in this workshop, the proposal of Hungary to the World Conference on International Telecommunications (WCIT-12) to add a new article on the International Telecommunication Regulations (ITRs) treaty called “Accessibility for Persons with disabilities”.

The second panelist, Mr Jorge Plano, from the Internet Society, Argentina, focused on the accessibility of Persons with Disabilities to electronic publications, namely e-books. He highlighted that in accessing knowledge, notably to digital books, there are two parallel processes that are growing in parallel. On one side, there is a digitalization of users/persons with disabilities having access to schools, universities and libraries, which are all converging on this effort all over the world.
Prof Mehta’s presentation talked about deaf-blind persons in the world, their daily challenge in communication and took for instance the case of Professor Stephen Hawkins, who is an eminent scientist, author, inventor, person with many disabilities, and able to communicate, to teach, invent, live a full life, operating his computer through just one button. The presentation highlighted that the persons that do not or cannot succeed in getting onto the information highway are excluded for most of the communications in this information society.

Mr Shadi Abou-Zahra, World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), further presented the latest news of making websites accessible to persons with disabilities. He highlighted the work of the W3C that is constantly involved in the development of the web to convey it to the needs of the persons with disabilities with the adoption of a new more accessible International standard. This is an ongoing process rather than an end-goal in itself. This presentation introduced the resources developed through the Web Accessibility Initiatives (WAI)-ACT Project.

All the presentations, abstract and bio of the panelists participating to the workshop can be found on the DCAD website: http://www.itu.int/themes/accessibility/dc/workshops/201109/137/index.html

(No.127) The Benefits of Using Advanced Mobile Technologies and Global Spectrum Harmonization

Go to Report
Status: 
Accepted
Workshop Theme: 
Access and Diversity
Theme Question: 

Questions 5 and 9

Concise Description of Workshop: 

Mobile broadband is a platform that enables socio-economic developments in the areas of healthcare, education, enterprise and entrepreneurship, raising the standard of living and increasing economic productivity in a country or region. The World Bank conducted a study showing that, in many developing nations, for every 10% increase in mobile penetration there would be a 1.4% increase in GDP.

Organiser(s) Name: 

Organizers to be added, in addition to Verizon

Previous Workshop(s): 

IGF Nairobi, Workshop 188: Transforming Higher Education Through Broadband – Maximizing Opportunities -- http://www.intgovforum.org/cms/component/chronocontact/?chronoformname=W...

Submitted Workshop Panelists: 

Submitted Workshop Panelists: 
 
Sandra Gilligan, GSMA (Confirmed)  
Alice Munyua, Government of Kenya (Confirmed)
Robert Pepper, Vice President, Global Technology Policy, Cisco (Confirmed)
Jacquelynn Ruff, Vice President, International Public Policy and Regulatory Affairs, Verizon Communications (Confirmed)
Peter Micek, Policy Counsel, Access (Confirmed)

Name of Remote Moderator(s): 
Emilar Vushe, APC
Report
Reported by: 
Theresa Swinehart and Milan Vuckovic
A brief substantive summary and the main issues that were raised: 

 
Workshop 127
The Benefits of Using Advanced Mobile Technologies and Global Spectrum Harmonization
IGF 2012 Baku, Azerbaijan
Summary Report
Mobile broadband is a platform that enables socio-economic developments in the areas of healthcare, education, enterprise and entrepreneurship, raising the standard of living and increasing economic productivity in a country or region. This workshop addressed the benefits of using advanced mobile technologies and global spectrum harmonization, and its contribution to helping bring broadband services to users efficiently and have a significant coverage range across a broadly defined geographic area, especially in hard-to-reach communities. 
Panel participants were:

  • Jennifer Warren, Vice President, Technology Policy & Regulation, Lockheed Martin Corporation (Moderator)
  • Peter Lyons, Director of Spectrum Policy for the Middle East and Africa, GSMA
  • Joseph Kihanya, Communications Legal Expert, National Communications Secretariat, Government of Kenya
  • Robert Pepper, Vice President, Global Technology Policy, Cisco
  • Jacquelynn Ruff, Vice President, International Public Policy and Regulatory Affairs, Verizon Communications
  • Alex Comninos, Doctoral Candidate at Justus Liebig University, Giessen, Germany

The panelists provided an overview of spectrum related matters pertaining to their areas of expertise and geographic regions.  The dialogue noted the importance of the increase in demand for mobile data and the necessity for the allocation of more spectrum for mobile broadband. Participants also highlighted the importance of global spectrum harmonization and the benefits of 4G LTE technology in reaching underserved and rural areas around the world.
 
Key areas noted in the discussion included:

  • The explosion of demand for data requires ensuring appropriate capacity is exists and is built.
  • The trend of large growth in Internet traffic over mobile devices will continue. According to Cisco data, mobile data traffic will grow at a rate of 78% year-over-year in the period from 2011-2016.  Among the main drivers of this exponential growth in traffic is video streaming, especially high-resolution video, proliferation of tablets and other mobile devices, as well as increase in mobile internet speeds resulting from deployment of 4G LTE technology.  Due to these trends, the allocation of additional spectrum for mobile broadband services and in particular Digital Dividend (below 1 GHz) spectrum is important.  
  • Within developing and emerging countries and regions, the penetration of cell phones far exceeds penetration of wireline broadband. As a result, most people are using cellphones to access the Internet and thus spectrum capacity is extremely important.  In this regard, awaring spectrum to more players would encourage efficiency of use and competition in the market place. 
  • Experiences in developed economies can serve as examples, including in the United States and Verizon’s experience in deploying the world’s first 4G LTE network using Digital Dividend (700 MHz) spectrum frequencies, and efforts to connect rural areas of the US with LTE through its LTE in Rural America program.
  • Experiences in emerging regions and for example Kenya were also highlighted, where Kenya is currently only using 50% of spectrum bandwidth available in the country, so that there is much room for growth.  It is expected that 10% of Kenya’s GDP will come from broadband industry by 2016.
  • The mobile industry is trying to bring access to knowledge to underdeveloped and rural areas of the world and that spectrum is a vital component of mobile infrastructure.  Of importance is that countries remove barriers to what spectrum frequencies can be used for deploying mobile technologies because it would foster global spectrum harmonization, bringing down the costs of devices.

(No.126) EURid/UNESCO World Report on IDN Deployment 2012 – opportunities and challenges associated with IDNs and online multilingualism

Go to Report
Status: 
Accepted
Workshop Theme: 
Access and Diversity
Theme Question: 

Question 7: How do language barriers impact access to the Internet? Question 8: What opportunities and challenges are presented

Concise Description of Workshop: 

Following on from the EURid/UNESCO report "IDNs, State of Play" published in Q2 2011 and presented at the IGF 2011 workshop 69 in Nairobi, IGF 2011, the 2012 World Report on IDNs deployment has expanded the evidence base and will cover some of the IDNs experiences of Top Level Domains.  We will hear from EURid, UNESCO, the European Commission, Internet service providers as well as end users about the opportunities and challenges of measuring and promoting multilingualism on the Internet.

Organiser(s) Name: 

EURid – private sector, technical community UNESCO – IGO

Previous Workshop(s): 

EURid’s Giovanni Seppia, currently Chair of the CENTR IGF Working Group, has co-organised ICANN and CENTR’s workshops at previous IGFs, including the ICANN workshop at the first IGF in Athens (2006), “Towards a multilingual global Internet” in cooperation with UNESCO and the National Telecommunication Regulatory Authority of Egypt (NTRA). UNESCO has organised the following workshops at the IGF: 96. Economic Aspects of Local Content Creation and Local Internet Infrastructure Furthermore, the collaboration between EURid and UNESCO on IDNs 2011 was presented in workshop 69 at the 2011 IGF, organised by Dot-Nxt, Inc. 2006, “Towards a Multilingual Internet” http://info.intgovforum.org/wksp57.php Workshop 69, Nairobi 2011: http://www.intgovforum.org/cms/component/chronocontact/?chronoformname=W... Workshop 96, Nairobi 2011: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/communication-and-information/resources/new... http://www.unesco.org/new/en/communication-and-information/flagship-proj...

Submitted Workshop Panelists: 

Giovanni Seppia, External Relations Manager, EURid (Technical Community, Europe), CONFIRMED
Janis Karklins, UNESCO (IGO), CONFIRMED
Markus Kummer, ISOC (Technical Community), CONFIRMED
Emily Taylor, Emily Taylor Consultancy Ltd (Private sector – technical community, UK), CONFIRMED
Baher Esmat, ICANN (Private sector - Africa), CONFIRMED
Anne Rachel Inne (Private sector - Africa), CONFIRMED
Vint Cerf (Private Sector - US), CONFIRMED
Minjung Park (Private sector - Asia) - CONFIRMED

Name of Remote Moderator(s): 
Irmgarda Kasinskaite, UNESCO
Gender Report Card
Please estimate the overall number of women participants present at the session: 
About half of the participants were women
To what extent did the session discuss gender equality and/or women's empowerment?: 
It was not seen as related to the session theme and was not raised
Report
Reported by: 
Emily Taylor - Giovanni Seppia
A brief substantive summary and the main issues that were raised: 

The workshop reviewed the EURid UNESCO World Report on IDN Deployment 2012, which provides an evidence based analysis of deployment experiences for Internationalised Domain Names (IDNs).  With a data sample of up to 90% of the world’s registered domains, there are now 3.5 million IDN registrations.  There is a striking correlation between local language, and the scripts deployed.  Case studies show the diverse experiences of countries and territories which have deployed IDNs.  The World Report offers an IDN Readiness Matrix comprising factors relating to the country, infrastructure and language on one axis, and specific factors relating to the country code Top Level Domain (ccTLD) on the other.
Vint Cerf of Google described the technical challenges associated with creating the IDN standards, and the overriding need for universal resolution of domain names, which demands theconsistent and reversible rendering between domain names in non-Latin scripts (Unicode) and the underlying ASCII encoding (punycode).  Cerf remarked that uptake of IDNs was not as high as anticipated.  A risk of IDNs being tried and then abandoned would be the potential loss of local language content associated with those IDN domain names.
Janis Karklins of UNESCO described the development of ICANN’s IDN ccTLD Fast Track policy.  The policy development was done rapidly, the technical standards are now there. It was like building a house and having the materials for the roof, but the roof is not yet in place.  UNESCO intends to use the World Report to identify actions for Member States to support IDNs and enhance online multilingualism.  UNESCO intends to write to the Chair of IETF, and CEO of Facebook and Twitter to apply “gentle and friendly pressure” for those organisations fully to support IDNs.
Minjung Park of KISA described the deployment experiences of IDNs in the Republic of Korea.  Over 200,000 domains were registered under .한국.  Usage was low (only 30%), and on first renewal the number dropped to 100,000.  Key factors for success are usability, awareness, and high volume of registrations.  Usability is poor, particularly in smartphones (eg Android) and browsers.  KISA is working with application developers, mobile manufacturers on usability, and with public sector organisations to encourage them to use the .한국 for their main sites. Without prominent websites, user awareness of IDNs will remain low. Without high volumes, there will be little incentive for application developers to support IDNs. 
Anne Rachel Inne of AfriNIC described the challenges faced by Africa with regard to multilingualism.  With over 1,500 languages, Africa is linguistically diverse, but challenges include low levels of literacy, and that many languages are not written or encoded.  Inne identified a skills gap within African ccTLDs, which can lack the skills and knowledge of how to deploy IDNs.
Baher Esmat of ICANN described the work being done to support IDNs within the ICANN community.  From a number of studies, poor usability of IDNs has been identified as the most important challenge.  Other initiatives within ICANN include expert studies on appropriate handling of character variants within IDNs, language tables and standard policies for them, and promoting universal acceptance of IDNs in applications such as Facebook.
Markus Kummer of the Internet Society (ISOC) remarked that the introduction of IDNs is a great step forward for multilingualism, and ISOC welcomes every step that enhances diversity. A study by ISOC, UNESCO and OECD highlights the correlation between local language content and local infrastructure creating a virtuous circle.  While the cause and effect is not clear, initiatives are needed at all levels.  ISOC would have hoped for more IDN applications in ICANN’s new gTLD process.
Speakers from the floor highlighted that the transcription process itself introduces user confusion.  For example, there are numerous spellings of Al Jazeera (eg Al Jazira, Al Jazera) but only one spelling in Arabic. 
From Verisign, Pat Kane described the findings of their marketing studies, which showed a difference between market demand and user preference.  Users express a high preference for IDNs, but low trust, because they are not used to seeing them.  He said that the industry has not invested in universal acceptance, and suggested that ICANN could assist in this, for example by funding the development of suitable plug ins.

Conclusions and further comments: 

IDN deployment marks a step forward in enhancing online multilingualism.  UNESCO and EURid intend the World Report on IDNs to be a yearly study to track progress, and highlight success and challenges.
Usability and universal acceptance of IDNs remain key obstacles preventing greater uptake, and also impair user awareness of IDNs.  UNESCO will use the World Report as a basis for advocacy with Member States and also to apply friendly pressure on relevant organisations, such as Facebook and Twitter.

Additional documents: 
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