(No.93) Around the ccTLDs world: The journey continues

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Workshop Theme: 
Emerging Issues
Theme Question: 

The speakers will address the following questions:
Emerging Issues
Q4: To what extent do Internet based services offer new and radically different opportunities to help families, social groups, communities and broader structures in society organize and re-organize themselves when challenged by natural disaster or strife?
Managing Critical Internet Resources
Q5: What new developments pose specific new policy and technical challenges?
• Introduction of new gTLDs
Questions for feeder workshops:
Question 2: What is the relationship of the multi-stakeholder accountability mechanisms and the overall goal of enhanced cooperation?
Access and Diversity
Q2: What are the legal policy and regulatory choices including enabling environments that foster infrastructure investment, particularly for developing countries?
Q4: What challenges do filtering, blocking and the diversity of national legal frameworks more generally pose to ensuring access and diversity?
Q7: How do language barriers impact access to the Internet?
The workshop fits perfectly in the high-level principles of the Tunis agenda as well as in the key themes of the next IGF in Baku. As a matter of fact, it will touch base on the following themes:  Access and diversity, Managing Critical Internet Resources and Emerging Issues. Moreover, as the range of activities covered by the ccTLDs is extremely broad, it is likely that some of the speakers may touch on how certain aspects – like security and privacy – are managed at local and/or regional level.

Concise Description of Workshop: 

The workshop intends to show the diversity of country code Top Level Domain (ccTLD) policy models and the best practice exchanges in this context. There are more than 250 ccTLD extensions globally. Each ccTLD represents the country’s national identity on the web. The ccTLDs and gTLDs community has been defined as one of the backbones of the Internet ecosystem. During the 2012 ICANN meeting in San Jose, Costa Rica, ICANN celebrated 27 TLDs that have hit the 25-year mark.
These ccTLDs have gone through enormous changes over more than two decades of activity. They coped with several emerging issues, like national-regional-international deregulations, IDNs, DNSSEC and other security measures, business continuity, law enforcement and privacy matters. A striking characteristic of ccTLDs is the variety of policies they work with. This workshop will present the evolution of the ccTLD against the various matters that impacted the TLD landscape in the recent years and those that are likely to change the TLD landscape like the forthcoming introduction of the new TLDs.
A question and answer session will follow with the guidance of a moderator. The Q&A session will be based on the comparison of the different models and will aim to further stimulate the dialogue, educate the audience and demonstrate the importance of best practice sharing.
The core message of the workshop is to show how different approaches serve different local needs and how the TLDs are interacting with the local government or supra-national organisations. Moreover, the workshop intends to underscore how the various TLD models have been contributing to the human, economic and social development by expanding multiculturalism and multilingualism via the projects that the TLD operators have set up at local level to educate and outreach their community.
These presentations and discussions build up valuable case studies for anyone with an interest in the grassroots basic of internet governance.

Organiser(s) Name: 


This workshop is organised by the Council of European National Top Level Domain Registries, CENTR, in cooperation with the four regional ccTLD organisations. With the inclusion of speakers from ISOC, national governments, service providers, international organisations and the ccTLDs the multistakeholder approach is adequately ensured. Moreover, by selecting gender balanced speakers from APTLD (Asia and the Pacific), AFTLD (Africa), CENTR (Europe) and LACTLD (Latin-America and the Caribbean) this workshop offers a truly global perspective on the issue.


Previous Workshop(s): 

2011: http://www.intgovforum.org/cms/component/chronocontact/?chronoformname=W...
2010: http://www.intgovforum.org/cms/component/chronocontact/?chronoformname=W...
2009: http://www.intgovforum.org/cms/index.php/component/chronocontact/?chrono...
2008: http://www.intgovforum.org/cms/workshops_08/showmelist.php?mem=12
2007: http://www.intgovforum.org/cms/rio_reports/CENTR%20-%20the%20functioning...
2007: http://www.intgovforum.org/cms/rio_reports/IGF%20Workshop-One%20size%20d...
2006: http://www.wwtld.org/meetings/cctld/20061101.Athens-IGF-IRT-Report.pdf
CENTR organised at least one workshop during each IGF meeting since 2006. All workshops were extremely well attended. CENTR holds regularly meetings and conferences, often in cooperation with other organisations.
The workshop follows up the educational path CENTR launched at the very first IGF in Athens (http://www.wwtld.org/meetings/cctld/20061101.Athens-IGF-IRT-Report.pdf). The presentations will confirm both that each ccTLD has the best tools to address the needs and expectations of its Local Internet Community and that recent changes in the ccTLD space – like the introduction of the IDN ccTLDs and the so-called geo-local TLDs – can represent an added value to make Internet more socially-inclusive and attentive to the needs of specific segments of the world-wide population.

Submitted Workshop Panelists: 

Mr. William Dee, European Commission - Confirmed
Ms. Carolina Aguerre, LACTLD - Confirmed
Mr. Barrack Ong'ondo Otieno, AFTLD - Confirmed
Mr. Konstantinos Komaitis, ISOC - Confirmed
Ms. Anne-Rachel Inné, AFRINIC - Confirmed 
Mr. Marco Pancini, Google - Confirmed
A series of questions will be addressed to all the speakers, and particularly to the TLD representatives, on the range of issues confronting ccTLDs. This would enshrine the basic principle that there is "no one size fits all".
Following the 6 workshops previously organised by the Regional ccTLD organisations we commit to gender and geographical diversity when selecting the panellists.

Name of Remote Moderator(s): 
Wim Degezelle
Gender Report Card
Please estimate the overall number of women participants present at the session: 
About half of the participants were women
To what extent did the session discuss gender equality and/or women's empowerment?: 
It was not seen as related to the session theme and was not raised
Reported by: 
Giovanni Seppia
A brief substantive summary and the main issues that were raised: 

Workshop executive summary

  • The forthcoming launch of the new TLDs has quite monopolised the discussion of the workshop. While the ISOC representative believes that the new gTLDs will be an opportunity to increase best practice sharing with ccTLDs, Anne Rachel Inne of Afrinic thinks that the ccTLDs will continue to have a key role not only in provisioning certain online national or regional services – that public organisation and/or governments will never link to a gTLDs, but also in ensuring the development of local communities by ad-hoc projects about DNS literacy. At the same time, Carolina of LACTLD underscored that the new gTLDs will have to stick to the ICANN rules while ccTLDs will keep being more able to meet the local wishes and producing their own policies.
  • ccTLDs accountability mechanisms and capacity building were two other elements the panellists talked about. The .cn representative in the room shared their experience in the capacity building area while Anne Rachel of Afrinic referred to the .sn actions towards master students as a good example of the ccTLD role in capacity building initiatives. The European Commission’s view about accountability was quite clear “as soon as you are a big part of the Internet ecosystem or even if you are not big you are essential for a national ecosystem, therefore you are critical”.
  • Concerning the TLDs future scenarios, there was a general agreement that ccTLDs will continue to be valuable to local communities and competitive as far as they are able to cope with new internal and external challenges. Nobody foresaw a decline in the ccTLD environment. Peter of CENTR mentioned the paper on WCIT drafted by CIRA and stated that it would be desirable if ccTLDs liaise with their governments to draw their attention on matters that are relevant not only to the ccTLDs but to the entire DNS ecosystem
Conclusions and further comments: 

ccTLDs future scenarios
In the framework of the forthcoming TLD globalisation, ccTLDs can continue to be competitive through the right infrastructure, right pricing, right policies, yes, and basically be part of the whole not only ecosystem but be part of the Internet and have the right content once again. One of the reasons why people go by other domains is simply because it is easier, it is less expensive and they have some content out there that is dear to them. Therefore, we should replicate that type of model at home and it is one of the things that a lot of our organisations have been helping around.
Peter from CENTR mentioned the paper on WCIT prepared by CIRA-Byron Holland and underscored the importance for ccTLDs to be involved in the WCIT process. The paper provides good hints that ccTLD managers can pass on to their governments/regulators to draw their attention on matters that are relevant not only to the ccTLDs but to the entire DNS ecosystem.
Emily drew the meeting to a close by stating “We have not only gone around the world, we have heard stories of diversity, of both the opportunities and the challenges that ccTLDs, particularly those in developing countries, are facing at the moment and will be facing as the environment changes. As the whole of the domain name endings become so diverse one possibility is that consumers will become much more aware of them than they have been. And it might well be an opportunity for the ccTLDs because people will be looking at the end of domain names in an end way that they haven't done before.”